Italian Republic

Official Languages
Italian, in some Regions also German and Ladin (South Tyrol), French (Valle d’Aosta) and Slovenian (Friuli Venezia Giulia)

Member of
UN (14 December 1955) and of EU (founder Member 25 March 1957)

Resident population
60.5 million (01/01/2018)*

Foreign residents 
5.6 million (01/01/2018)*

Rome, capital since 1870 (the first capital was Turin, then Florence)


Euro (€) since 01/01/2002

63,8% Catholics**

International telephone code

Vehicle plate code

Unemployment rate
11,2% (01/01/2018)*

Festa della Liberazione (Liberation Day)
25 April

Festa della Repubblica (Republic Day)
2 June

* Source: ISTAT (16/05/2018)
** Source: 46° Rapporto Annuale Censis (2012)

1,200 (km)

Surface area
302,071 (km2)

Surface area of highly seismic zones
28,026 (km2)

Length of coastline
7,375 (km)

Surface area of protected zones
63,791 (km2)

Highest peak
Mont Blanc – 4,810 (m)

Longest river
Po – 652 (km)

Regions/ Provinces/ Municipalities
The territory of the Italian Republic is divided into Regions, which in turn are divided into Provinces, in turn divided into Municipalities. Regions, Provinces, Municipalities and metropolitan Cities are autonomous subjects, with their own statutes, powers and functions (art. 114 of the Italian Constitution).

Regions and regional capitals



Source: ISTAT, “Italia in cifre 2013″

Form of Government
Parliamentary Republic since 1946

President of Republic
Sergio Mattarella

It consists of 
Camera dei Deputati (Chamber of Deputies, lower house, 630 members popularly elected) at Montecitorio and Senate (upper house, 315 popularly elected members plus life senators) at Palazzo Madama

Prime Minister
Giorgia Meloni

Main Political Parties
MoVimento 5 Stelle, Lega, Forza Italia, LeU, Partito Democratico

Central Government

Regional and Local Government

04 March 1848
Carlo Alberto of Savoy promulgated the Albertine Statute, making the kingdom of Sardinia a Constitutional monarchy. The Constitution remained in force in Italy until 1948.

17 March 1861
Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy was crowned first King of Italy. The territory of the kingdom comprised the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, conquered by Garibaldi and the expedition of the Thousand. The first Government was formed, headed by Cavour.

20 September 1870
With the Porta Pia Breach Latium too was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, removing the temporal power of the Popes. Rome capital of Italy.

May 1915 – October 1918
Italy entered World War One alongside the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France and Russia). Despite ending the war on the winning side, Italy did not obtain the territories it had requested from the allies

October 1922
Benito Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister by King Vittorio Emanuele III. In a short time Mussolini created the fascist dictatorship in Italy

11 February 1929
Signature of Lateranensi Pacts between fascist Italy and the Holy See. Mutual recognition of sovereignty of the two states, repairing the damage done by the Porta Pia Breach. Catholicism became the state religion.

10 June 1940
Italy entered World War Two alongside Germany, ending in a tragic rout. For Italy the war finally ended on 25 April 1945, with partisans and allies liberating the country from Nazi-fascist occupation…ויאגרה/.

02 June 1946
With a universal suffrage referendum the Italian people voted to put an end to the monarchy. The Italian Republic was born.

01 January 1948
The first Constitution of the Italian Republic came into force.

04 April 1949
Italy signed the North-Atlantic Treaty, joining NATO.

25 March 1957
The treaty establishing the European economic community (EEC) was signed in Rome, Italy being one of the founder members.

1992 – 1994
Birth of the Second Italian Republic. A series of political scandals (“Tangentopoli”) led to the disappearance of traditional parties and, driven by popular indignation, a new majority-based electoral system, introducing bipolarisation.

The Constitution of the Italian Republic